Online Instructional Resources
Teaching Methods: Teaching Critical Thinking
Critical thinking in the college classroom actively engages students in higher
order thinking about course material: questioning, applying, analyzing, synthesizing
and/or evaluating it using reasoning, logic, and problem-solving abilities.
It moves beyond the mere acquisition and retention of information. The resources
below provide research, bibliographies, methods, articles, and handouts for
developing students' critical thinking abilities.
A Working Definition of Critical Thinking, Michael Scriven
and Richard Paul (cthink, Palo Alto College Critical Thinking Resource).
An in-depth definition of critical thinking.
Critical Thinking Source (University of Minnesota Center for
Teaching and Learning Services).
Has 3 components: 1) An essential points page with an overview of main research
on critical thinking, 2) an annotated bibliography, 3) a resource page with
links to critical thinking sites at other universities.
Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project (Longview
Community College, Lee's Summit, MO).
Core resources and discipline-specific resources for teaching critical thinking compiled by Longview
Reasoning Across the Curriculum Program at Prince George's
This site contains a PDF file of the Handbook of Resources compiled by faculty
across the disciplines for Prince George's Year of Critical Thinking. Also has
numerous links to websites and materials on teaching reasoning and critical
Reflective Judgment, Patricia M. King (University of Michigan).
A website dedicated to the Reflective Judgment Model that describes the “development
of reasoning from adolescence to adulthood.” Contains a description of
the model, instruments for assessing RJ, research, methods for improving students’
RJ skills, and references.
“Helping Your Students Develop Critical Thinking Skills,”
Cindy L. Lynch and Susan K. Wolcott. (IDEA Paper #37, October 2001).
Presents a model for developing students’ critical thinking/problem-solving
skills based on reflective judgment. Describes educational experiences that
will foster growth in these skills.
“Creating Steps for Better Thinkers” (WolcottLynch
This site, by the authors of IDEA Paper #37 above, contains a web-based tutorial
for anyone wishing to improve their critical thinking and problem solving skills
or faculty members who want to enhance their students’ skills in this
area. The site also contains handouts, resources for educators, working papers,
and other materials.
The Critical Thinking Community (The Foundation and Center
for Critical Thinking at Sonoma State University).
A comprehensive site that contains online resources for teaching critical thinking
at any level, including links to numerous articles and handouts for faculty
and students about all aspects of critical thinking.
Mission: Critical (San Jose State University).
Intended primarily to provide students with a self-paced interactive tutorial
on the basic foundations of informal logic. Also contains links to other critical
thinking Web sites and a list of critical thinking textbooks.
Perry Network and Center for the Study of Intellectual Development,
William S. Moore, Coordinator.
This is a website dedicated to Perry's Model of intellectual development, its
assessment and research support. Click on "Overview of Perry Scheme"
for a complete description of Perry's model of cognitive and affective growth
during the college years.
“A Nudge Is Best: Helping Students through the Perry Scheme of
Intellectual Development,” Robert J. Kloss, William Paterson
The author present examples from his classes of student thinking at each level
of Perry’s model, and then presents multiple methods for guiding students
from a dualistic to a multiplistic mode of knowing. Includes activities, questioning
techniques, and teacher feedback strategies.
Summary of Women's Ways of Knowing, Belenky et al., BasicBooks,
1986 (Ferris State University, Center for Teaching, Learning, and Faculty Development).
A concise summary of the five stages of knowing from Belenky et al.'s book.
See also Cognitive, Moral, and Emotional
Development of Students on this site.